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“Epistle to Diognetus - chapters 5 - 7”
An extract from a letter of the 2nd or 3rd century which gives a moving account of the distinctive qualities of the Christian life.
Click here to read at earlychurchtexts.com in the original Greek (with dictionary lookup links). The English translation below is from the ANF series.
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5. For the Christians are distinguished from other men neither by country, nor language, nor the customs which they observe. For they neither inhabit cities of their own, nor employ a peculiar form of speech, nor lead a life which is marked out by any singularity. The course of conduct which they follow has not been devised by any speculation or deliberation of inquisitive men; nor do they, like some, proclaim themselves the advocates of any merely human doctrines. But, inhabiting Greek as well as barbarian cities, according as the lot of each of them has determined, and following the customs of the natives in respect to clothing, food, and the rest of their ordinary conduct, they display to us their wonderful and confessedly striking method of life. They dwell in their own countries, but simply as sojourners. As citizens, they share in all things with others, and yet endure all things as if foreigners. Every foreign land is to them as their native country, and every land of their birth as a land of strangers. They marry, as do all [others]; they beget children; but they do not destroy their offspring. They have a common table, but not a common bed. They are in the flesh, but they do not live after the flesh. They pass their days on earth, but they are citizens of heaven. They obey the prescribed laws, and at the same time surpass the laws by their lives. They love all men, and are persecuted by all. They are unknown and condemned; they are put to death, and restored to life. They are poor, yet make many rich; they are in lack of all things, and yet abound in all; they are dishonoured, and yet in their very dishonour are glorified. They are evil spoken of, and yet are justified; they are reviled, and bless; they are insulted, and repay the insult with honour; they do good, yet are punished as evil-doers. When punished, they rejoice as if quickened into life; they are assailed by the Jews as foreigners, and are persecuted by the Greeks; yet those who hate them are unable to assign any reason for their hatred.
6. To sum up all in one word— what the soul is in the body, that are Christians in the world. The soul is dispersed through all the members of the body, and Christians are scattered through all the cities of the world. The soul dwells in the body, yet is not of the body; and Christians dwell in the world, yet are not of the world. The invisible soul is guarded by the visible body, and Christians are known indeed to be in the world, but their godliness remains invisible. The flesh hates the soul, and wars against it, though itself suffering no injury, because it is prevented from enjoying pleasures; the world also hates the Christians, though in nowise injured, because they abjure pleasures. The soul loves the flesh that hates it, and [loves also] the members; Christians likewise love those that hate them. The soul is imprisoned in the body, yet preserves that very body; and Christians are confined in the world as in a prison, and yet they are the preservers of the world. The immortal soul dwells in a mortal tabernacle; and Christians dwell as sojourners in corruptible [bodies], looking for an incorruptible dwelling in the heavens. The soul, when but ill-provided with food and drink, becomes better; in like manner, the Christians, though subjected day by day to punishment, increase the more in number. God has assigned them this illustrious position, which it were unlawful for them to forsake.
7. For, as I said, this was no mere earthly invention which was delivered to
them, nor is it a mere human system of opinion, which they judge it right to
preserve so carefully, nor has a dispensation of mere human mysteries been
committed to them, but truly God Himself, who is almighty, the Creator of all
things, and invisible, has sent from heaven, and placed among men, [Him who is]
the truth, and the holy and incomprehensible Word, and has firmly established
Him in their hearts. He did not, as one might have imagined, send to men any
servant, or angel, or ruler, or any one of those who bear sway over earthly
things, or one of those to whom the government of things in the heavens has been
entrusted, but the very Creator and Fashioner of all things—by whom He made the
heavens—by whom he enclosed the sea within its proper bounds—whose ordinances
all the stars faithfully observe—from whom the sun has received the measure of
his daily course to be observed — whom the moon obeys, being commanded to shine
in the night, and whom the stars also obey, following the moon in her course; by
whom all things have been arranged, and placed within their proper limits, and
to whom all are subject—the heavens and the things that are therein, the earth
and the things that are therein, the sea and the things that are therein—fire,
air, and the abyss—the things which are in the heights, the things which are in
the depths, and the things which lie between. This [messenger] He sent to them.
Was it then, as one might conceive, for the purpose of exercising tyranny, or of
inspiring fear and terror? By no means, but under the influence of clemency and
meekness. As a king sends his son, who is also a king, so sent He Him; as God He
sent Him; as to men He sent Him; as a Saviour He sent Him, and as seeking to
persuade, not to compel us; for violence has no place in the character of God.
As calling us He sent Him, not as vengefully pursuing us; as loving us He sent
Him, not as judging us. For He will yet send Him to judge us, and who shall
endure His appearing? … Do you not see them exposed to wild beasts, that they
may be persuaded to deny the Lord, and yet not overcome? Do you not see that the
more of them are punished, the greater becomes the number of the rest? This does
not seem to be the work of man: this is the power of God; these are the
evidences of His manifestation.
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Christian Behaviour in Early Church
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